Occupationally embedded exercise versus rote exercise: a choice between occupational forms by elderly nursing home residents.
A memorization technique based on repetition
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learning, associative learning, spaced repetition and active learning.
Versus critical thinking
Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples of school topics where rote learning is frequently used include phonics in reading, the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics, anatomy in medicine, cases or statutes in law, basic formulae in any science, etc. By definition, rote learning eschews comprehension, so by itself it is an ineffective tool in mastering any complex subject at an advanced level. For instance, one illustration of rote learning can be observed in preparing quickly for exams, a technique which may be colloquially referred to as "cramming".
Rote learning is sometimes disparaged with the derogative terms parrot fashion, regurgitation, cramming, or mugging because one who engages in rote learning may give the wrong impression of having understood what they have written or said. It is strongly discouraged by many new curriculum standards. For example, science and mathematics standards in the United States specifically emphasize the importance of deep understanding over the mere recall of facts, which is seen to be less important. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics stated:
More than ever, mathematics must include the mastery of concepts instead of mere memorization and the following of procedures. More than ever, school mathematics must include an understanding of how to use technology to arrive meaningfully at solutions to problems instead of endless attention to increasingly outdated computational tedium.
However, advocates of traditional education have criticized the new American standards as slighting learning basic facts and elementary arithmetic, and replacing content with process-based skills. In math and science, rote methods are often used, for example to memorize formulas. There is greater understanding if students commit a formula to memory through exercises that use the formula rather than through rote repetition of the formula. Newer standards often recommend that students derive formulas themselves to achieve the best understanding. Nothing is faster than rote learning if a formula must be learned quickly for an imminent test and rote methods can be helpful for committing an understood fact to memory. However, students who learn with understanding are able to transfer their knowledge to tasks requiring problem-solving with greater success than those who learn only by rote....
On the other side, those who disagree with the inquiry-based philosophy maintain that students must first develop computational skills before they can understand concepts of mathematics. These people would argue that time is better spent practicing skills rather than in investigations inventing alternatives, or justifying more than one correct answer or method. In this view, estimating answers is insufficient and, in fact, is considered to be dependent on strong foundational skills. Learning abstract concepts of mathematics is perceived to depend on a solid base of knowledge of the tools of the subject. Thus, these people believe that rote learning is an important part of the learning process.
By nation and culture
While the system is widely practiced in schools in Hong Kong, China, Brazil, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, Romania, Italy, South Korea, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Malta, Myanmar, Kenya, Greece, and Vietnam, it has been criticized by numerous academics.
In computer science
Rote learning is also used to describe a simple learning pattern used in machine learning, although it does not involve repetition, unlike the usual meaning of rote learning. The machine is programmed to keep a history of calculations and compare new input against its history of inputs and outputs, retrieving the stored output if present. This pattern requires that the machine can be modeled as a pure function — always producing same output for same input — and can be formally described as follows:
- f() → () → store ((),())
Rote learning was used by Samuel's Checkers on an IBM 701, a milestone in the use of artificial intelligence.
See also Memoization.
Learning methods for school
The flashcard, outline, and mnemonic device are traditional tools for memorizing course material and are examples of rote learning.
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- ^National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics". Retrieved 6 May 2011.
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- ^Preliminary Report, National Mathematics Advisory Panel, January, 2007
- ^Feynman, Richard; Leighton, Ralph (1985). Surely you're joking, Mr. Feynman!. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN .
- ^Jones, Dorian (2007-03-21). "Turkey: Revolutionizing The Classroom". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
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- ^Bean, John C. (2011). Engaging Ideas: The Professor's Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking and Active Learning in the Classroom (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 384. ISBN .
- ^Mulnix, J. W. (2010). "Thinking critically about critical thinking". Educational Philosophy and Theory. 44 (5): 464–479. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00673.x.
- ^Ming Xue; Changjun Zhu (25 April 2009). A Study and Application on Machine Learning of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence, 2009. JCAI '09. International Joint Conference on. pp. 272–274. doi:10.1109/JCAI.2009.55.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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- ^Preston, Ralph (1959). Teaching Study Habits and Skills, Rinehart. Original from the University of Maryland digitized August 7, 2006.
- ^Cohn, Marvin (1979). Helping Your Teen-Age Student: What Parents Can Do to Improve Reading and Study Skills, Dutton, ISBN 978-0-525-93065-5.
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Occupationally embedded exercise versus rote exercise: a choice between occupational forms by elderly nursing home residents
Objectives: The provision of options in the occupational form that encourages meaningful choices and subsequent purposeful occupational performances is a basic premise of occupational therapy. This study examines the preferences of elderly nursing home residents when presented with an occupationally embedded exercise versus a rote exercise and addresses the methodological problems identified in similar past research.
Methods: Fifty-two elderly nursing home residents were presented with a choice between an occupationally embedded exercise that involved unilateral dunking of a small, spongy ball into a basketball hoop and a rote exercise that involved moving the arm above the head in a simulation of the dunking exercise. Both exercises required flexion of the shoulder joint. Random assignment of the 52 subjects into one of four groups controlled for the order of the presentation of the exercises and the order of the choice statements.
Results: Sixty-nine percent of the subjects chose the occupationally embedded exercise. Analysis with the significance of a proportion statistic revealed a statistically significant difference (z = 2.77; p (one-tailed) = .003).
Conclusion: Results were consistent with the hypothesis that elderly nursing home residents would tend to choose the occupationally embedded exercise. To further confirm this basic premise of occupational therapy, future studies that investigate therapeutic patterns of movement embedded in common occupations are recommended.
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