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ProQuest Completes Acquisition of Ex Libris

Work begins to enrich current products and innovate new solutions for the world’s libraries


ANN ARBOR, Mich., and JERUSALEM, Israel, December 15, 2015 — ProQuest, an information solutions provider central to global research, has completed its acquisition of Ex Libris Group, a leading global provider of cloud?based solutions for higher education. The businesses’ complementary assets are being integrated, enabling existing services to be enhanced and sparking the creation of all-new solutions that will help libraries seize opportunities in rapidly changing technology, content, and user environments.


”This is a momentous day for our company as we officially welcome Ex Libris and its talented team to ProQuest,” said Kurt Sanford, ProQuest CEO. ”We are bringing together a truly unique, expansive combination of capabilities and assets that will also accelerate innovation of new services to address libraries’ most pressing challenges.”


ProQuest has formed a new business unit — Ex Libris, a ProQuest Company – which will continue to support the broad selection of products that customers depend on,including Alma, Aleph, bX, Intota, Primo, Rosetta, SFX, SIPX, Summon, 360 Link, Voyager, and the newly launched Leganto reading-list solution and campusM mobile campus solution. The Ex Libris business unit is led by Matti Shem Tov, reporting to Mr. Sanford and supported by a team comprised of both Ex Libris management and ProQuest Workflow Solutions management.


”Ex Libris has an impressive record of innovation and growth, and throughout its long history has nurtured close relationships with our broad customer community,” remarked Mr. Shem Tov. ”These strong ties with our customers around the world will be enriched by combining our strengths with ProQuest’s unparalleled resources and expertise.”


ProQuest and its new Ex Libris business unit will continue their longstanding commitment to openness and collaboration with other organizations, including OCLC, Google, Gale Cengage Learning, HARRASSOWITZ, and YBP/EBSCO.  


”We’re excited to have Ex Libris join ProQuest and welcome its proven track-record of innovation on behalf of libraries,” said Andrew Snyder, ProQuest Chairman and CEO of Cambridge Information Group. ”Organized in the new business unit, Ex Libris, a ProQuest company, will build on and create groundbreaking library services, bringing additional value to our customers and the broader industry.”


Read more about how ProQuest and Ex Libris will be better together.


About Ex Libris (

Ex Libris is a leading global provider of cloud-based solutions for higher education. Offering SaaS solutions for the management and discovery of the full spectrum of library and scholarly materials, as well as mobile campus solutions driving student engagement and success, Ex Libris serves over 5,600 customers in 90 countries. 43 of the top 50 universities worldwide and over 40 national libraries deploy Ex Libris solutions to create a unified platform for both the management and discovery of library resources.


About ProQuest (

ProQuest connects people with vetted, reliable information. Key to serious research, the company’s products are a gateway to the world’s knowledge including dissertations, governmental and cultural archives, news, historical collections and ebooks. ProQuest technologies serve users across the critical points in research, helping them discover, access, share, create and manage information.


The company’s cloud-based technologies offer flexible solutions for librarians, students and researchers through the ProQuest®, Bowker®, Coutts® information services, Dialog®, ebrary®, EBL™, and SIPX® businesses – and notable research tools such as the Summon® discovery service, the RefWorks® citation and reference management platform, MyiLibrary® ebook platform, the Pivot® research development tool and Intota™. The company is headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, with offices around the world.



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What Are the Larger Implications of ProQuest’s Acquisition of Ex Libris?

Today brings news of a major consolidation in the library vendor marketplace, with ProQuest acquiring Ex Libris. This is just the latest of an intense round of acquisitions in the vendor/intermediary marketplace and in addition to some thoughts on this particular deal it is a good moment to reflect more broadly on what is taking place.

ProQuest operates a content platform, which includes many types of content from journals and books to newspapers and special collections. Based in part on an earlier acquisition of Serials Solutions, it also provides various library-licensed tools and services such as a citation manager, a link resolver, and a discovery service. Most recently, it had acquired Coutts, the book vendor.

Ex Libris provides integrated library systems (ILS), which provide much of the management infrastructure for library collections, as well as a discovery system. Its legacy systems have been in use at many research libraries, and its new offering, a “cloud-hosted” system called Alma, appears to be selling well into the academic library marketplace.

Blurring Lines

The lines between content platforms like those operated by ProQuest and EBSCO and the library systems providers like Ex Libris and OCLC has been blurring in recent years.

The counterexample is OCLC, which divested itself of its content platform some years ago, helping it to establish the neutrality of its library systems and discovery offerings. This neutrality was a major talking point of Ex Libris as well, for similar reasons.

But there has been a broad shift among content platforms, not only aggregators but also publishers like Elsevier and Nature, to invest in tools and systems. This is a strategic consequence not only of the scholarly open access movement but also the basic economic models towards unbundling that appear to be emerging on the internet across a variety of content types.

In this context, ProQuest and EBSCO have been investing in the services and tools that librarians use in managing collections and that they provide undergraduates to discover and utilize library collections.

For ProQuest, some of its key services today include the book vendor Coutts (acquired contemporaneously with EBSCO’s acquisition of YBP), its Summon indexed discovery service, a knowledge base and link resolver, and the RefWorks/Flow citation and PDF management tool, among others.

Product Overlap

There is some product overlap between ProQuest, which had begun to build a proto-ILS in Intota, and the Alma system. But the most substantial business overlaps are for discovery services and knowledge base / link resolver systems. Summon and Primo Central both are building enormous content indices and the user interfaces needed for libraries to offer full-collections search on their homepage and potentially a variety of other discovery services in the future. Both companies work to populate the knowledge bases designed to power, among other services, their 360 Link and SFX link resolvers. Marshall Breeding has speculated that one area of obvious synergy is in creating the underlying discovery indices and knowledge bases, no small undertakings and a significant duplication of effort, even if they choose to retain separate interface offerings under the two brands.

With respect to the indexed discovery services, this acquisition will reduce from four to three the number of companies that operate an indexed discovery service, with EBSCO and OCLC being the other two. While there has been additional progress in adding functionality to the discovery services since their introduction some years ago, it is unclear if they have made a substantial contribution to increase the library’s role as a discovery starting-point. Certainly, investments have yet to be made to realize the full potential of a central content index, including current awareness and personalization. Libraries must hope that this consolidation will make possible greater investment in these tools even if that is not always the effect of a merger.

Strategic Vision

What this deal tells us perhaps most clearly of all is that ProQuest believes there is a future in the ILS. This is not so obvious an assumption as many librarians might believe. The ILS has proven to be a decreasingly “integrated” solution unable to serve libraries’ needs to manage the substantial growth in digital collections, the new forms of demand-driven and shared acquisition, and the need to think collaboratively about print collections management. At most academic libraries, the ILS is providing management functions for a declining share of library expenditures and collections. As a consequence, it might not be illogical for a company with its eyes on the library systems market to imagine being able to “leapfrog” over serving print collections altogether and building a systems environment for an e-only future.

Savvy observers been watching both EBSCO and ProQuest very closely in this regard, since both have an extensive portfolio of library systems but until this point neither has had the suite of functionalities necessary to manage a print collection that constitute the traditional ILS. With ProQuest making the decision to make this acquisition, it will be absolutely fascinating to see what this may mean for EBSCO. In the academic libraries space, the other main ILS vendor is Innovative, which is pushing libraries towards its Sierra cloud system. Innovative does not operate its own discovery service but rather relies on a partnership with EBSCO, making this relationship especially interesting to watch.

Modularity, Seamlessness, and Data

There has been much discussion about modularity in systems architecture and openness in data exchanges. But as we see strategic integration to a very small number of firms offering library systems and integrated content platforms, some libraries will look for contractual assurances that they can rely strategically on openness and modularity in designing their systems and content environments.

On the other hand, deeper connections between a variety of content and systems could bring real advantages to researchers. After all, modularity has been responsible in no small measure for some of the stumbling blocks that users experience while seeking to access information resources. And, recognizing the privacy implications, more integration would allow more extensive data to be gathered about usage patterns and user practices, potentially allowing for improved service development and personalization.

Ultimately, for some smaller libraries, several companies, not least ProQuest, are developing the potential to offer what could amount to a nearly completely outsourced digital library solution. Were this to develop, such libraries could be positioned to invest instead in other vital roles, but there could also be less rosy scenarios, to be sure. This is perhaps the most significant, and potentially troubling, development for the library profession, and for many academic libraries, in these acquisitions and the potential for their integration over time.

In Sum

Over time, we should expect the ProQuest acquisition of Ex Libris to offer a variety of synergies not only on the business side but potentially to library customers and researchers as well. Customers and partners of the content platforms and library systems vendors should not be surprised to see further strategic partnerships if not outright consolidation.


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ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris

Proquest and Ex Libris logos

In a move that alters the business dynamics of the library technology sector, ProQuest has announced that it will acquire Ex Libris in a deal expected to close in later in 2015. Ex Libris, under the ownership of Golden Gate Capital since November 2012, will become a wholly owned business of ProQuest. This merger significantly extends ProQuest’s offerings of technology-based workflow and resource management tools and places a broader portfolio of products under the responsibility of Ex Libris. While this merger represents a major step in the evolution of the industry, it is not anticipated to compromise the availability of current product offerings. Longer-term product strategies will be developed over time in collaboration with the company’s customer base.

Following the close, a new business group will be formed called Ex Libris, a ProQuest Company. This new entity will combine the portfolio of Ex Libris and the Workflow Solutions division of ProQuest and will be headed by current Ex Libris President and CEO Matti Shem Tov and a combined management team built from Ex Libris and ProQuest executives. Shem Tov will report to Kurt P. Sanford, CEO of ProQuest, who has led the company since July 2011. The workforce of both companies will continue intact in their current business locations and roles with their respective products. John “J. G.” Chirapruath appointed as senior vice president and general manager of ProQuest Workflow Solutions in June 2015 will continue in this role until the transaction is complete and will also immediately become the chief product and strategy officer for ProQuest reporting to Sanford.

Continuity of the Ex Libris strategy and management team forms one of the fundamental cornerstones of the acquisition agreement. The arrangement for Shem Tov to continue with Ex Libris under the ownership of ProQuest is not an interim arrangement, but a long-term commitment. Shem Tov and his executive management team have navigated Ex Libris through multiple ownership arrangements preserving key products and strategies. These continuing strategies, primarily based on aggressive research and development to create new technology products for libraries and other institutions, have proven successful as Ex Libris has seen impressive growth in terms of library customers, revenue, and personnel employed. Shem Tov has served as president and CEO of Ex Libris since March 2003.

Previous ownership arrangements for Ex Libris include:

  • ProQuest (Beginning in 2015)
  • Golden Gate Capital (November 2012 –2015)
  • Leeds Equity Partners (August 2008 – November 2012)
  • Francisco Partners (June 2006 – April 2008)
  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1980–2006), Tamar Ventures, and Walden Israel (1999–2006)

The value of Ex Libris increased substantially through each phase of ownership. According to business reports published at the time, Francisco Partners purchased Ex Libris for $62 million in 2006. The value of the current transaction has not been disclosed.

Product strategy

Executives interviewed, including Sanford and Shem Tov, assert that the existing products of both companies will continue to be developed and supported according to previously established timelines and customer commitments. They position the merger as one that will continue to support the choices that libraries have made and with potential to strengthen all the products involved through the combined expertise and capacity of the two organizations. The slate of products under the merged business includes:

  • 360 Link: link resolver and knowledge base product developed by Serials Solutions
  • Aleph: The original integrated library system developed by Ex Libris in the mid-1980s
  • Alma: library services platform released by Ex Libris in 2012 with initial development beginning in 2009
  • bX Recommender: an article recommendation technology developed by Ex Libris
  • campusM: mobile-oriented content management platform for academic institutions acquired by Ex Libris in April 2015
  • Intota: library services platform in the development by ProQuest Workflow Solutions
  • Intota Assessment: workflow tool developed by ProQuest to provide analytics and predictive business information to support more intelligent collection development
  • Leganto: course list management system recently developed by Ex Libris
  • Primo: discovery service initially released in 2006, with the Primo Central index
  • Rosetta: digital preservation and asset management platform developed by Ex Libris
  • SIPX: tool for the management of copyright and costs for digital course packs acquired by ProQuest in April 2015
  • SFX: the context sensitive link resolver, acquired by Ghent University in 2000 and subsequently redeveloped and commercialized
  • Summon: index-based discovery service launched by Serials Solutions in January 2009
  • Voyager: Integrated library system originally developed by Endeavor Information Systems in the mid-1990s and acquired by Ex Libris in November 2006

According to both Sanford and Shem Tov, the merger of Ex Libris into ProQuest will not eliminate existing products. Ex Libris and ProQuest have both previously acquired companies and left their products intact even when duplicative of existing offerings. When Ex Libris acquired Endeavor, it developed Voyager even more aggressively than its previous owner, Elsevier. Voyager continues to be supported and developed and is used in some of the world’s largest libraries, including the Library of Congress and Cambridge University. In parallel to ongoing support of Voyager and its original Aleph ILS, Ex Libris developed Alma as an entirely new product, both as a long-term migration path for the libraries using those products and especially to attract new customers. ProQuest demonstrated a similar strategy with its ebook strategy, preserving the platforms of Ebrary, which it acquired in January 2011, and Ebook Library, acquired in June 2013, as it developed its new Ebook Central platform that combined the capabilities and business models of both products, which entered its beta test phase in June 2015.

There may be some scenarios where the joining of the companies may have the potential to enhance product offerings. Both Primo Central and Summon depend on central indexes, which may be mutually enhanced with content not previously addressed. Likewise the SFX and 360 Link may be improved through collaboration in the population of their respective knowledge bases.

It is important to note that at this time the acquisition has not closed and that product, personnel, and business strategies are still under review. More specific product roadmaps will be developed and announced in the coming months once the merger is finalized.

Creation of a library technology leader

This merger will form the largest entity in the library technology industry, though not as large as companies with broader business activities such as EBSCO, OCLC, or Gale. The two incumbent organizations at the end of 2014 employed 1,045 people, with 432 involved in some aspect of product development, according to figures provided for the annual Library Systems Report published by American Libraries. Once the acquisition of Ex Libris completes, ProQuest will have a workforce of approximately 1,800 employees across all its business units. The following table shows the personnel statistics of the two companies prior to the merger and the combined totals. Once the merger is completed and the organizations become integrated, the personnel counts may vary considerably form the totals shown.

ProQuest Workflow Solutions224107756311480
Ex Libris208234654711565
Ex Libris, A ProQuest Company432341140110221,045

Ex Libris was already the largest of the companies oriented primarily to the development of library software measured by personnel employed. Other large companies in this category include SirsiDynix, with 421 personnel, and Innovative with 416. OCLC reported total personnel of 1,315, including its many different products and services. EBSCO Information Services, a company with many similarities to ProQuest in terms of content and technology offerings, employs 2,982.

ProQuest background

ProQuest is owned by Cambridge Information Group and with a minority investment by Goldman Sachs. Cambridge Information Group is owned Robert N. Snyder (founder), Andy Snyder (CEO), and their family.

ProQuest ranks as one of the major producers of content products, with a wide portfolio that includes databases and e-books. The company offers dozens of databases in the social sciences, science and technology, medicine, business, research, and many aggregations of news sources. ProQuest markets its content products to colleges and universities, public libraries, corporations, and K–12 schools. Its content brands also include CSA, Chadwyck-Healey, and SIRS. ProQuest traces its roots to publication of collections on microfilm and continues to offer newspapers, dissertations, primary works, and other materials on this medium.

In addition to these content products, ProQuest has created or acquired a variety of technology products that assist libraries in the acquisition and management of electronic and print resources. The acquisition of Ex Libris dramatically accelerates and expands ProQuest’s capacity in the support of libraries with workflow and resource management tools.

Smart Libraries Newsletter covered the new business strategy executed under the leadership of Kurt Sanford in March 2014: “ProQuest Unifies its Business, Drops Serials Solutions Brand.” This strategy created a more unified business from a variety of units that previously operated mostly independently. As part of this strategy, the company discontinued the Serials Solutions brand, a company it had owned since March 2004, folding all its products and activities into ProQuest Workflow Solutions.

[The following section is based on updated text of that article]

Cambridge Information Group

A large investment firm, Cambridge Information Group holds portfolio companies in diverse industries. In addition to its library-oriented companies, CIG also owns Sotheby’s Institute of Art, the Back to Rock school of music, and is a major investor in Navtech, which develops aircraft navigation products. CIG’s initial portfolio company was Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. Its investments expanded to include many other library-oriented companies. In 2001 CIG purchased R. R. Bowker from Reed Elsevier. Backed by CIG, Bowker subsequently acquired other companies including Syndetic Solutions and Medialab Solutions and its AquaBrowser Library discovery interface, both in 2007. CSA also expanded, including the acquisition of Community of Science in 2005. CIG supported the establishment of RefWorks in May 2001.

CIG acquired ProQuest in February 2007 in partnership with private equity firm ABRY as a minority investor. At this time ProQuest was merged with CIG’s CSA subsidiary to form ProQuest-CSA, subsequently named ProQuest in May 2007. Marty Kahn was appointed CEO.

Following the acquisition of ProQuest, many of CIG library-related assets were organized under ProQuest, including Bowker and its subsidiaries. During this period, ProQuest made a number of strategic acquisitions, including purchasing Dialog from Thomson Reuters in July 2008.

In November 2013 ABRY divested its stake in the company with Goldman Sachs stepping in as a new minority investor.


ProQuest traces its corporate history to a company formed by Eugene B. Power in 1938 called University Microfilm International based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Based on the experience gained with its original product of doctoral dissertations, the company expanded into abstracts of scholarly articles and other types of content. Ownership of the University Microfilm International changed hands in 1962, when it was acquired by Xerox, and again in 1985, when Bell & Howell purchased the company. Bell & Howell Information and Learning expanded through a series of strategic acquisitions and through the creation of new product lines.

The company launched its flagship ProQuest series of products in 1995, originally distributed on CD-ROM, and in 1997, via the internet though ProQuest Direct. The success of the brand led to the use its name when Bell & Howell Information and Learning and Bell & Howell Publishing Services merged in 2001, forming the ProQuest Company.

In 1999 Bell & Howell acquired Chadwyck-Healey in a deal valued at £30 million. Other acquisitions made in this period included the Canadian company Macromedia in 2002, which published a variety of products on CD-ROM and in print. In June 2003 ProQuest acquired SIRS Publishing, which had developed a variety of information products oriented primarily to K–12 school libraries, from Elliot and Eleanor Goldstein.

Serials Solutions

In March 2004 ProQuest acquired Serials Solutions from its founders. The products of Serials Solutions, oriented primarily to the management and access of electronic resources, came to form the basis of the ProQuest Workflow Solutions division.

Serials Solutions was founded in May 2000 by Peter McCracken, Mike McCracken, Steve McCracken, and Chris Pierard. The company was acquired by ProQuest Information and Learning in March 2004. In June 2005 Jane Burke was named vice president of ProQuest and general manager of Serials Solutions. Burke is a veteran of the library automation industry, having held executive positions in CLSI, NOTIS Systems, Ameritech Library Services, and Endeavor Information Systems. Burke continues her involvement at ProQuest as a Vice President, Market Development. Through the acquisition of Ex Libris, Burke is once more involved with Voyager, the product developed under her leadership by Endeavor Information Systems.

ProQuest acquired Coutts and its MyiLibrary digital content platform and Online Acquisitions and Selection Information System (OASIS) from Ingram Content Group in June 2015. Details of this acquisition were covered in the June 2015 issue of Smart Libraries Newsletter.

ProQuest acquired Ebrary in January 2011 from its cofounders Kevin Sayer and Christopher Warnock. In January 2013 ProQuest acquired the Australian company Ebook Library. The company’s new Ebook Central is under development as its new strategic platform for the management and access of ebooks.

[The following section is based on the profile of Ex Libris originally published in the January 2013 issue of SLN]

Ex Libris’ Corporate and Investment History

Ex Libris traces its roots to efforts to create automation software for the libraries of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, beginning in 1980. The Automated Library Expandable Program, or ALEPH-100, system soon attracted interest by other universities. Yissum, the technology transfer unit of the University, facilitated the formation of a new company called Aleph Yissum to further develop and commercialize the software. Azriel Morag, an Israeli businessman with experience in the software industry, was recruited to lead the company. In 1986, another company was formed, Ex Libris, Ltd., to market the software outside of Israel, with Morag as its principal owner. Aleph Yissum and Ex Libris, Ltd. were merged in 1995 and shortly reorganized under the name Ex Libris Group. In July 1997, Ex Libris acquired a German company Dabis and its BIS automation product used by around 300 academic libraries.

In 1999, two Israel-based venture capital firms, Walden Israel and Tamar Ventures, made a combined $4 million investment in Ex Libris. The injection funded the company’s entry into the United States and commercialization of the SFX linking technology, which it acquired from Ghent University. At this point, Morag and other company executives, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (30%), Walden Israel (20%), and Tamar Ventures (20%), shared ownership of the company. In addition to SFX, the company created a variety of other products to support academic libraries, such as the MetaLib federated search tool, Verde electronic resource management system, and DigiTool digital collections platform.

Beginning in 2005, Ex Libris Group began exploring other investment opportunities. In September 2005, the company attempted an initial public offering on the AIM (Alternative Investment Market) of the London Stock Exchange. At this point, Morag retired from Ex Libris, selling his ownership stake to the other investors. The IPO failed to generate the anticipated capital and was withdrawn.

Francisco Partners, a San Francisco-based private equity firm, acquired Ex Libris Group in June 2006 for $62 million, marking a major transformation of the academic library automation sector. In a subsequent transaction in November 2006, Ex Libris, with support from Francisco Partners, also acquired Endeavor Information Systems from Elsevier. This merged company went forward with two flagship ILS products, Aleph and Voyager, continuing ongoing development, marketing, and support for both. One of the key strategic products created during this period was Primo, positioned as a discovery and delivery interface for academic libraries, which could be used not only with both Aleph and Voyager, but with the ILS products from competing companies. The company also invested in the development of Rosetta, a new digital preservation platform created in partnership with the National Library of New Zealand going to general release in January 2009.

Francisco Partners held on to this investment for just past two years, selling Ex Libris Group to Leeds Equity Partners in August 2008 for an estimated $150 million. Shortly after the acquisition by Leeds, the company began the development of a new Unified Resource Management product, subsequently branded as Alma. As a new library services platform built from the ground up, Alma represented a significant research and development project. Offering a forward migration path for existing customers using and Voyager, Alma also held potential for attracting new library customers using ILS products from competing companies.

Golden Gate Capital acquired Ex Libris from Leeds Equity Partners in August 2013. During the period of its ownership by Golden Gate, Ex Libris entered a phase of sales and implementation of Alma, reaping the rewards of the investment made in the product’s development. New products developed include the bX Recommendation Service and the Leganto course list management solution. Ex Libris expanded its involvement into the campus mobile technology arena with its acquisition of oMbiel and its campusM mobile-oriented SaaS platform.

MARSHALL BREEDING is an independent consultant, speaker, and author. He writes and edits the popular website Library Technology Guide.

From a faculty member's perspective: Ex Libris Leganto at Arizona State University

Ex Libris Group

Ex Libris Group is an Israeli software company that develops integrated library systems and other library software. The company is headquartered in Jerusalem, and has ten other offices around the world.[1] In October 2015, Ex Libris was acquired by ProQuest and is now a ProQuest company.[2]


Ex Libris started as an internal project at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1980 to develop a new library management system, as no system at the time was able to handle both Hebrew and Latin character sets as required by the University. The software was called Automated Library Expandable Program or ALEPH-100 ("Aleph" is also the name of the first letter of many Semitic alphabets).[3] In 1983, Yissum (the technology transfer company of the Hebrew University) founded Aleph-Yissum Ltd., a new company to commercialize the software. Yohanan Spruch, the original developer of ALEPH, became the company's chief technology officer. Between 1983 and 1988, all of the eight universities in Israel bought the program and linked up in a network.[3]

In 1986 Ex Libris Ltd. was founded by technology entrepreneur Azriel Morag to market the software overseas. In 1993 ALEPH was deployed by the seventeen libraries of the Vatican[4] and 200 libraries in 27 countries had bought it by 1995.[3]

In 1995 Aleph-Yissum merged with Ex Libris Ltd. and reorganized as the Ex Libris Group, headed by Azriel Morag as the group's chief executive officer.[5]

In July 1997, Ex Libris acquired Dabis, a leading vendor of automated library systems in the German speaking countries.[6]

In 1998, venture capital funds Walden Israel and Tamar Ventures invested over $4m in Ex Libris.[7]

In February 2000, Ex Libris acquired the rights to SFX, an OpenURL link server software, from the University of Ghent.[8][9] Ex Libris popularized OpenURL, which later became the ANSI/NISO Z39.88 standard in the information industry.[10]

In July 2000, Ex Libris launched MetaLib, a federated search system that conducts simultaneous searches in multiple information resources such as library catalogs, journal articles, newspapers.[11]

In August 2002, Ex Libris launched DigiTool, a full function, digital asset management system designed for libraries and information centers.[12]

In 2004, Ex Libris launched Verde, an electronic resource management system that manages the acquisition and licensing of electronic resources.[13]

In July 2006, Francisco Partners became the sole owner of Ex Libris Group.[14] In November of that year, Endeavor, the developer of the Voyager integrated library system, was merged into Ex Libris.[15]

In May 2007, Ex Libris launched the Primo library discovery and delivery service.[16]

In August 2008, Leeds Equity Partners acquired Ex Libris Group.[17]

In May 2009, Ex Libris launched the bX recommender service, which provides library users with recommendations for scholarly articles.[18] Also in 2009, Rosetta was introduced as a digital preservation and asset management solution.[buzzword][19]

In January 2011, in collaboration with four development partners, the company released the Ex Libris Alma library management solution[buzzword], the first SaaS cloud-based library services platform, representing the company's shift from an on-premise to a SaaS technology provider.[20]

Golden Gate Capital acquired Ex Libris in 2012.[21]

Ex Libris acquired oMbiel and its product campusM, a mobile campus platform, in April 2015, marking the company's expansion to EdTech solutions[buzzword] outside the library.[22]

Leganto, the company's reading list management application, built on the Alma cloud platform, was launched in 2015, and was Ex Libris' entry into the teaching and learning domain.[23][24]

In December 2015, ProQuest acquired Ex Libris.[25][19] It was announced at that time that Ex Libris would also manage the products of the Workflow Solutions division of ProQuest,[26] such as Intota, Summon, and 360 Link.[27]

In February 2018, Ex Libris partnered with five universities across the US to collaborate on the development of a new research services platform, Ex Libris Esploro. It was the company's first step into the research services market.[28] The company provides services to thousands of customers in more than 90 countries.[29] As of 2015, Ex Libris served 43 of the 50 top universities in the world.[29] Over 40 national libraries use Ex Libris solutions.[30]

In August 2018, Ex Libris acquired Research Research Limited (known as *Research), which offers coverage of funding opportunities and publishes news and analysis of research politics and funding in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand.[31]

In June 2019, Ex Libris acquired RapidILL, which had been developed by Colorado State University.[32] In December 2019, Ex Libris agreed to acquire Innovative Interfaces (III).[33]

Key people[edit]

Matti Shem Tov was the president and CEO of Ex Libris from 2003-2017. He was appointed as CEO of ProQuest in November 2017, and Bar Veinstein took over as president of Ex Libris at that time.[19]


  • Alma: A SaaS Library Services Platform (LSP), released by company in 2012
  • Primo: Discovery service released in 2006
  • Summon: Index-based discovery service. Launched in January 2009
  • Rosetta: Digital preservation and asset management platform, launched in 2009
  • Leganto: Reading list management application launched in 2015
  • campusM: Mobile campus app platform for academic institutions, acquired in 2015
  • Esploro: Research services platform launched in February 2018
  • 360 Link: Link resolver and knowledge base product
  • 360 Resource Manager: Library content management
  • Refworks: Citation and reference management solution[buzzword]
  • Pivot: Comprehensive resource for finding funding opportunities available to researchers
  • Aleph: Original integrated library system (ILS)
  • Voyager: Integrated library services platform (ILS), acquired by Ex Libris in November 2006
  • DigiTool: Digital asset management system
  • bX: Scholarly article recommender service
  • Verde: E system
  • SFX: OpenURL link resolver software[8][12][19][23]


  1. ^Ennis, Matt (16 November 2012). "Ex Libris Group acquired by Golden Gate Capital". The Digital Shift. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  2. ^"ProQuest to buy Israeli co Ex Libris for $500m - Globes". Globes (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  3. ^ abcFlusfeder, Helena (13 November 1995). "Instant access, distant library". Times Higher Education.
  4. ^"Aleph computerizes the Vatican". Israel Business Today. 22 October 1993. Archived from the original on 11 June 2014.
  5. ^"Walden Israel Venture Capital portfolio". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  6. ^"Ex Libris purchases Dabis". Library Systems Newsletter. July 1997.
  7. ^"Ex Libris buys US competitor Endeavor - Globes". Globes (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  8. ^ ab"ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris | American Libraries Magazine". American Libraries Magazine. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  9. ^"Ex Libris acquires SFX linking software". Computers in Libraries. 20 (4): 12. April 2000. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07.
  10. ^"Library Journal". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  11. ^Flett, Margaret. "Implementing cross-search tools: challenges and opportunities"(PDF). UCL Library Services.
  12. ^ ab"1992-2001: Library management systems". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
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  16. ^Pagliero, Popp, Mary (2012-06-30). Planning and Implementing Resource Discovery Tools in Academic Libraries. IGI Global. ISBN .
  17. ^"Ex Libris bought by New York private equity firm - Globes". Globes (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  18. ^Breeding, Marshall (2009-06-01). "bX Recommender Service Now Available from Ex Libris". Smart Libraries Newsletter. 29 (6).
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  20. ^"ידעטק | Ex Libris חושפת את ALMA - פתרון מבוסס ענן לניהול ספריות". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  21. ^Hane, Paula J. (2012-11-19). "Golden Gate Capital Acquires Ex Libris Group". Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  22. ^"Library Journal". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
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  25. ^"ProQuest Buys Israeli Ex Libris For $500M | Technology News". NoCamels - Israeli Innovation News. 2015-10-07. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  26. ^Breeding, Marshall (6 October 2015). "ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris". American Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association.
  27. ^Sanford, Kurt (15 December 2015). "ProQuest and Ex Libris Join to Bring More Choices to Libraries". ProQuest Blog. Retrieved 23 February 2016 – via ProQuest.
  28. ^GmbH, "Five Partners Join Ex Libris in Developing New Research Services Platform | Markets Insider". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  29. ^ abאורפז, ענבל (2015-10-06). "עסקת ענק: פרוקווסט האמריקאית רוכשת את אקס ליבריס הישראלית בכחצי מיליארד דולר". TheMarker. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
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  31. ^Breeding, Marshall (2018-09-01). "Ex Libris Expands Learning and Research Division". Smart Libraries Newsletter. 38 (9).
  32. ^"Ex Libris Acquires RapidILL, Provider of Leading Resource-Sharing Solutions". Ex Libris. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
  33. ^"Ex Libris Signs Definitive Agreement to Acquire Innovative". Innovative Interfaces Inc. Retrieved 2019-12-06.

External links[edit]


Exlibris proquest

 Year Ending December 31, 2021
(Forecasted) Low High Per Share Per ShareNet income$0.00 $0.05 Transition, transition services agreement, and integration expense(1) 0.07 0.07 Share-based compensation expense 0.04 0.04 Amortization related to acquired intangible assets 0.68 0.68 Income tax impact of related adjustments (0.05) (0.05) Adjusted Diluted EPS$0.74 $0.79 Weighted average ordinary shares (Diluted)631,043,005 

 (1) Includes restructuring costs, other cost optimization activities, and payments and receipts under transition service agreements.

Free Cash Flow and Adjusted Free Cash Flow

Free cash flow is calculated using net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures. Adjusted free cash flow is calculated as free cash flow, less cash paid for transition services agreement, transition, transformation and integration expenses, transaction related costs and debt issuance costs offset by cash received for hedge accounting transactions.

The following table presents our calculation of Free Cash Flow and Adjusted Free Cash Flow for the Outlook for 2021 and reconciles this measure to our Net cash provided by operating activities for the same period:

 Year Ending December 31, 2021 (Forecasted)
(in millions)Low High
Net cash provided by operating activities$559.7  $609.7 
Capital expenditures(151.7)  (151.7) 
Free Cash Flow408.0  458.0 
Transition, transition services agreement, and integration expense(1)42.0  42.0 
Adjusted free cash flow$450.0  $500.0 

 (1) Includes cash payments related to restructuring and other cost optimization activities.


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