Standard kalimba tuning

Standard kalimba tuning DEFAULT

Keeping your Kalimba in tune is the single most important thing you can do to continue enjoying to play your instrument and to maintain motivation to practice and improve your technique. There are two ways to look at Kalimba Tuning.

To ‘Tune a Kalimba’ is adjusting each tine individually to a specific pitch so the notes sound exactly as expected. When played together, the perfectly tuned tines complete a musical scale or part thereof. This is the Kalimba‘s tuning, and how the instrument sounds when the notes are played together.

In this article, I am going to look at both aspects of Kalimba tuning. I will discuss how to tune individual keys on the instrument. Once you know how to do that, your Thumb Piano becomes a far more versatile instrument than you first imagined, as you will be able to completely retune the kalimba to different scales, or ‘Tunings’

The first section will be about how to tun your Kalimba, whilst scrolling down will take you to the Scales section

Tuning a Kalimba

This section is about tuning your kalimba. There may be more than one reason why you need to tune or retune your kalimba. It may be that you have a dead, or stiff tine that needs adjusting, or one tine sounding out of tune that needs a small adjustment to get it back to normal.

What you will need to tune a Kalimba

  • A Kalimba (of course!)
  • List of required notes
  • Tuner (physical or phone app)
  • Tuning Hammer
  • Earphones with Mic pick-up (optional)
  • Patience

What notes to Tune the Kalimba keys to

Let’s forget about tuning to various scales right now and concentrate on the scale that your Kalimba has arrived. Quite often new kalimbas are tuned to the scale of C and the keys are marked with the letters of each note.

It is not unusual to find Kalimbas to be slightly out of tune on arrival from certain suppliers!

What notes are on a Kalimba?


On a 17 key Kalimba tuned to C you should expect to find the notes C4,D4,E4,F4,G4,A4,B4,C5,D5,E5,F5,G5,A5,B5,C6,D6,E6 covering just over two octaves beginning at C4. This is the most common tuning followed by a G Major scale. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to, or

Regularly Check the tuning of your Kalimba

Whether you feel your Kalimba is out of tune or not, it is good practice to check the tuning of each tine on a weekly basis. There may be one or two more frequently played tines moving slightly out of tune, but not enough for your ear to pick up accurately. left for some time and more notes will be off and you KalImba will begin to sound bad.

How to check each note on the Kalimba is in tune

By far the easiest way to check the accuracy of the tuning for each key on your Kalimba is to use a tuning tool. These can be either electronic tuners (my preference) of a tuning application on your mobile phone.

Which tuning tool you use is entirely up to you. there are free tuning apps available on both IOS and android which are fine, but it is worth spending even a couple of bucks, to not have to have ads popping up while you are trying to tune your kalimba.

Tuning apps for Kalimba

Using a basic guitar tuning app is going to provide you with what you need to check the tuning of your Kalimba to guide you to the adjustments you need to make to get it back into tune, or to retune the thumb piano to a completely different scale.

There are many options for both IOS and android devices, and the following are a few I have used or continue to use

IOS Apps

insTuner is one of a few tuning apps on IOS. I dont have a great deal of experience here as I had one on my iPad, but also have better on my android phone and an electronic tuner that i always prefer if it is at hand


gStrings is probably one of the most popular tuning apps used on any mobile phone. Available for free in the PlayStore, you will get pop up adds which can be a pain in the butt, although this user think they are OK for a free app.

Really handy app, obviously as the free version, it had a bunch of ads, which can be a little much sometimes but they never get in the way of being able to use the tuner, so no real complaints from me! Tuner itself seems accurate to me, I can’t tell the difference between tuning with this or with a dedicated clip-on tuner. It does need a reasonably quiet space to work properly, which can be a pain if that is not possible, but overall, I really like it!

Murdo McLean 4/5 Stars on 9/4/2020

Electronic Tuners for Kalimba

I have to admit to still being a bit old school. not so much as to go back to a tuning fork, but I do like my battery electronic tuner that I have had for as long as I can remember

The fact I have owned a Korg since 2001 and it is still going strong speaking volumes for the value for money it provides, and I am sure the newer versions are an improvement on the one I still have.

I own other Korg tuners as well as other brands of tuners (I like to keep a tuner with each musical instrument I own) and this one is THE BEST YET!

Michael, USA – 5/5 Stars 7/16/2020

See price on Amazon

Any tuner is fine so it really comes down to your personal preference and whether you would lke to use a physical tuner or electronic tuner with your Kalimba

The process of tuning your Kalimba

So now we have the kalimba and the tools to discover whether each tine is in tune or not, we can go about correcting any that are out of tune.

This is done with the help of the tuning hammer.

What is the Kalimba hammer for?

You have taken a look online for some Kalimbas and are thinking of buying one, you note it comes with a handy carry case and a hammer. But what is the hammer for?

The kalimba hammer is an essential thumb piano tuning tool made from metal with a wooden handle used for adjusting the kalimba keys with small taps, affecting the distance between the front of the tine and the bridge which alters the pitch of the tines and notes played.

Now, this is both a delicate piece of equipment for helping to tune the keys on your Kalimba but also solid enough so that you need only tap the tines a little.

Where to get a Kalimba Tuning Hammer?

Many Kalimbas come supplied with a case that also includes a tuning hammer, so the chances are you already have one.

If you do not own one, you’ll notice the head is quite small and it is a little more delicate than the hammer you have in the garage.

Fortunately, they are relatively inexpensive and can be purchased from Amazon with convenient delivery in a day or two.

Which way do I need to move the tines?

You have probably already figured out that the shorter the tine after the bridge, the higher the note and vice versa.

So quite simply

  • Hammer up, to higher the note
  • Hammer down to lower the note

When tuning an individual key on a Kalimba, the very slightest movement up or down the bridge will change the pitch of the note, so huge walloping blows with the hammer are not required.

The way the hammer is used is to tap either the top or bottom of the tine depending on what change in the tine note you are trying to achieve.

A couple of taps is enough to change the pitch, so don’t go crazy and after each couple of taps, check with the tuning app once again to see if the pitch is correct or not.

Kalimba Tuning Scales

Kalimbas can be purchased with different numbers of tines, from 7-17 in most cases, with the most popular and ‘standard’ instruments offering 15 on the Hugh Tracey Alto, or 17 on many of the other brands on the market tunes to G Major or C.

Can you tune a kalimba to a different key?

Tuning a kalimba to a different key than it is currently tuned to is easy. Simply take a tuning hammer and tuning app and adjust each tine to the specific note required for the new key and scale you wish to play,

The fact is, supplied kalimbas unless bespoke ordered and tuned for, you are tuned to standard scales and it allows you to learn and play many recognizable ‘songs’

Where things can get really interesting and help you create original music is to tune a Kalimba to another scale and explore the world of new possibilities this provides.

Alternative Kalimba Scales

By taking what you have learned about tuning a Kalimba in this article no opens up the chance to experiment with retuning your Kalimba to an alternative scale and creating original music of your own

A scale is simply a series of notes in a sequence covering an octave [8 notes]

These natural scales can be used as the basis of your 17 key scale on kalimba. Of course, if you have an 8 key kalimba you are ready to go with these. You can chromatically retune your Kalimba from its diatonic scale too.

What is Chromatic Kalimba Tuning?

Most Kalimbas are tuned to Diatonic scales, missing sharps and flats. By adding them into a scale when you retune your kalimba you can create a chromatic scale and create even more melodic possibilities in your playing. Some Kalimbas have keys on the back presenting full chromatic scales.

Major Scales

  • C Major Scale: C – D – E – F – G – A – B – C
  • G Major Scale: G – A – B – C – D – E – F♯ – G
  • D Major Scale: D – E – F♯ – G – A – B – C♯ – D
  • A Major Scale: A – B – C♯ – D – E – F♯ – G♯ – A
  • E Major Scale: E – F♯ – G♯ – A – B – C♯ – D♯ – E
  • F Major Scale: F – G – A – B♭ – C – D – E – F
  • B Flat Major Scale: B♭ – C – D – E♭ – F – G – A – B♭
  • E Flat Major Scale: E♭ – F – G – A♭ – B♭ – C – D – E♭
  • A Flat Major Scale: A♭ – B♭ – C – D♭ – E♭ – F – G – A♭

Minor Scales

  • A Minor Scale: A – B – C – D – E – F – G – A
  • E Minor Scale: E – F♯ – G – A – B – C – D – E
  • B Minor Scale: B – C♯ – D – E – F♯ – G – A – B
  • F Sharp Minor Scale: F♯ – G♯ – A – B – C♯ – D – E – F♯
  • C Sharp Minor Scale: C♯ – D♯ – E – F♯ – G♯ – A – B – C♯
  • D Minor Scale: D – E – F – G – A – B♭ – C – D
  • G Minor Scale: G – A – B♭ – C – D – E♭ – F – G
  • C Minor Scale: C – D – E♭ – F – G – A♭ – B♭ – C
  • F Minor Scale: F – G – A♭ – B♭ – C – D♭ – E♭ – F

How to Apply these scales to 17 note kalimbas

Taking the C Scale above, it is a matter of extending either up or down an octave as you prefer.

So the C Scale [C – D – E – F – G – A – B – C] becomes


There are almost limitless variations of scales you can choose to tune your kalimba to.


Exotic Tunings for 17-Note Kalimba

Reinvent your Kalimba, Re-energize your Kalimba Playing

Click to go to Tuning Page

If you ever get to the point where you feel your kalimba is old hat, or you cannot think of anything new to do on it, you need to come back to this article.

By retuning your kalimba to a new tuning, you basically get a new instrument that presents you with a new world view and plays new music, all for the price of… the five or ten minutes it will take for you to retune your kalimba.

You would be amazed – these tunings sound so rich and amazing and different! Just listen to each one. Each is a land I would love to explore.


I do get bored. And when I get bored, I look for something interesting, sparkling, amazing – something new and different. But not too new – if it is totally different from anything I know, I also tend to get confused or overwhelmed.

But here’s the deal: if you are bored with your kalimba because you have gotten too good, you can take those mad kalimba playing skills to a whole new platform. You can have the experience of exploring a totally new kalimba scale, with all the goosebumps and thrills of a new land, but unlike the first times you explored the kalimba, you are now GOOD at playing kalimba.

I find that exploring new kalimba tunings – each like a new country with strange, new and exotic music – empowers me and gives me renewed enjoyment on my kalimba journey.

So – I invite you to pick your adventure. The mystical minor? The enchanting Middle Eastern scale? Or the retro R&B kalimba feel full of African resonance with the sort of tuning that Maurice White used with his band, Earth, Wind & Fire?

The standard tuning on the 17-Note kalimba in C is… C Major! And there are so many things you can do in this standard C major tuning. In fact, the four instructional downloads and one book that are written for the 17-Note kalimba in C all assume you are in the standard C tuning. However, this article is about what you can do in some other tunings. The C Major tuning is presented here as a reference for the other tunings.

When I hear the major-tuned kalimba, I think it just cannot get any more pretty than this – and then I hear a minor-tuned kalimba, and I am totally struck by how charming this little instrument can sound.

The first 15 seconds of this music emphasize E as the root, and have a very Middle-Eastern sound. At 15 seconds, the music shifts to emphasize A as the root, and we have a classical harmonic minor scale, great for Spanish music. The music goes back and forth between these two modes… which is the main push and pull of this kalimba tuning.

This is my guess as to what Maurice White’s tuning was. Maurice White, founder and leader of Earth, Wind & Fire until 1996, turned millions of people on to the kalimba. (“Evil” was one of the songs on which he famously played kalimba.) His idiosyncratic minor pentatonic tuning resonates with an African vibe.

 At this point in time, you have four options, and they are probably not the ones you think they are:

(1) You could choose to leave your kalimba in its standard tuning. This tuning was chosen for a reason – it is very simple, very useful, and it can play thousands of songs.

(2) You could choose one of these exotic tunings, take a few minutes to learn about how to tune your kalimba, and you could change the tuning of your kalimba to one of these exotic tunings. It is not that hard – most tines won’t need to be retuned, and the ones that do need to be retuned will only change by a little bit. And you can always tune back to what the tuning was before.

(3) If you don’t feel you can accomplish the retuning, or you believe you can’t because you tried to do it and failed, or if you just don’t want to be bothered with doing the retuning – don’t worry, I’ve got you covered. Send your kalimba in to the Kalimba Doctor, and for $10 plus return postage, we will transform your kalimba into one of these exotic tunings.

(4) If you know many songs on your kalimba in standard tuning, you probably don’t want to lose those songs. Changing the tuning from C Major to C Minor will mean you will be starting over again, learning all new songs. If you want to keep those C Major songs, and also to explore the possibilities of C Minor – then you might consider getting two or more kalimbas in different tunings. Then, you will have multiple worlds of music at your fingertips…. er, thumb tips!


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Are there alternate tunings?

Are there alternate tunings?

To me, half the fun of the kalimba is to explore the realms of alternative tunings. If you ever get tired of your kalimba and the things it plays, it is probably time to experiment with an alternative tuning. A good tuning will transform the universe of possibilities open to your kalimba. You can invent your own tuning, but first you should check out the alternative tunings we have documented for each kalimba. And really, there are thousands of good tunings possible for every kalimba, so there is a lot of ground to explore.
While this is not exhaustive, many of the tunings are listed below:

There are many other tunings for the Hugh Tracey Alto Kalimba, but I recommend that you start with the standard G major tuning. Most of the tips, tablature, and books were written for the standard tuning, so a good path to follow is to keep your kalimba in the key of G for a year or two or three as you learn, and then branch out into other tunings as you progress.

The Hugh Tracey Alto Kalimba’s standard tuning comprises two octaves of the G major scale. The lowest and highest notes are both G, which is the root note, making this tuning easy to understand. Furthermore, there are tons of books and downloads that work with this tuning. The A, Ab, G, F#, F, and E tunings are all basically the same pattern, all with the root note at the bottom and the top notes – hence they can all read the same tablature and use the same books. Why would you want another key other than G? If you don’t know, stick with G tuning.

The letters on the tines in the diagram are the names of the notes each tine is tuned to. The numbers are the degree of the scale – that is, 1, the root note, is “Do” as in “Do, Re Mi, Fa, So”. The number 5? count up, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, which would be “Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So”. Of course, 8 is the “Do” at the top of the scale, and is the same note name as the bottom “Do” of the scale – that is, 1 and 8 are the same note. The “Do, Re, Mi…” scale is synonymous with the major scale, which is the standard reference for all other scales. Some other scales will have lowered versions of some of the degrees of the scale – a minor 3rd is a lowered, or flattened (taken down a half step) 3rd, and we refer to it as “3-“. Some scales have raised or sharpened (raised a half step) versions of some of these notes, and we indicate them with a plus sign, as in “4+”. And some scales will completely skip some degrees of the scale – the major pentatonic scale skips the 4 and the 7. Stick around, and you’ll learn a lot about music through the little kalimba.

Maurice White of Earth, Wind, and Fire used a 17-Note Treble Hugh Tracey kalimba tuned to an A minor pentatonic scale with redundant notes, wowing people on songs such as Evil and Kalimba Story during the 1970s. The tuning on our Evil Alto kalimba is analogous to the tuning of Maurice White’s Treble kalimba.

In the tablature diagram, the painted tines in the middle of the left side and the middle of the right side are both tuned to A notes, and the next lower tines on both sides are tuned to G notes. This novel tuning permitted Maurice to perform a fast trill on either of those notes by alternating quickly between the left and right versions of either the A or the G, twice as fast as you could trill any single note played on just one side.

The lowest note is the “7-” or flat 7, also known as a minor 7, and it leads into the root note, A = 1. Other notable features are the minor 3rd or “3-“, and the missing 2 and 6, and the root note A at both the top right and the top left.
This type of scale came out of the work of Chicago jazz musician Phil Cohran, who employed an electric kalimba with a similar tuning when he recorded with Sun Ra in the 1960s. Part of the draw of this scale is its distinct African “feel” – one of Hugh Tracey’s research findings was that about 40% of traditional African kalimba tunings use a pentatonic scale like this one. Phil Cohran inspired Maurice White with his use of the kalimba as a symbol of Africa, the pentatonic scale to represent African music, as well as his use of those redundant notes in building musical excitement.

Coming soon: Evil Alto Sound Recording

There are actually several “blues scales”. I’ve known about this type of blues scale for 40 years. It is almost exactly the same as the minor pentatonic scale, and it would go great with the Maurice White Evil Tuning. It has an extra note thrown in, the Eb, between the 4 and the 5 in each octave. You can think of it as a raised 4 or “4+” or as a flat 5 or “5-“. In contrast to the Evil tuning, this one does not have any redundant notes. In this tuning a C is added at the very top, with two “5-” notes, the Eb’s that are both on the right side. In the language of the blues, the “5-” note is also called the “blue note”; in the classical world, the “tritone”; in medieval times it was called the “devil’s interval” and its use was forbidden by the Church!

This is not the same tuning Kevin Spears uses, but it is quite similar in nature.

Coming soon: recording of the Alto A minor Blues Tuning.

The Middle Eastern tuning was my first alternative tuning, in 2001 of all times.

There are two broadly different ways of changing the key of your kalimba. One way is by retuning all the tines in the same way (i.e., pulling out every tine by a half step, which will retune the standard Alto kalimba from G down to F#). The other way is to retune around the
Circle of Fifths – changing just one note per octave will transform both the key and the note layout of the instrument. An example of this is going from the Alto’s standard G tuning to the C tuning shown here. The two F# tines are retuned a half step down to F, and the root note becomes C.

Why would one want to change an Alto kalimba to C from G tuning? Three reasons come to mind: (1) you might need to play kalimba in the key of C to accompany a vocal song for it to be in your vocal range, (2) you can play similar music but in a significantly different range with respect to the root note, enabling you to potentially play a lot of different music and (3) you might need to play in the key of C to play with other musicians – I use my C-tuned Alto to play with my marimba band Baba Marimba.

Here’s the best thing about the C-tuned Alto Kalimba: this is one of the easiest retunings, so you can do it yourself.

The G minor tuning is conceptually very close to the standard G major tuning. Every note that is present on the standard G Alto is also on this kalimba in the same place with the same letter, but the F# is now F (F also called F natural), the B is now Bb (B flat), and the E is now Eb. (By the way, these are the same basic changes that must occur to turn a G Treble into a Bb Treble.)

It is instructional to compare the G Major tuning with the G minor tuning. The root (1), the 5th, the 2nd, and the 4th, i.e., the most important notes for chord progressions in any particular key, are the same for G minor as for G Major. The G minor tuning has a flat or minor 7th (designated as 7-), a flat or minor 3rd (3-), and a flat or minor 6th (6-). The notes that are changed in this retuning do cause a pronounced change in the emotional flavor of the scale.

Why would you want this tuning? To more completely understand and experience the minor key, with the psychological advantage of having the root note of the minor key in the bass. G minor also goes with Bb major, so this would be a good kalimba to play with the Bb Treble.

The F tuning is made from the G tuning by simply tuning every note down by a whole step. The role each tine plays in this scale – that is, the 1, the 5, etc., do not change, so anything you learned on the G Alto will be easily played on this tuning, just a step lower. And unless you have perfect pitch, you won’t even realize this instrument is different from the G Alto, since it seems to play just the same as the standard G tuning.

To tune to A major, every tine on a standard-tuned G Alto is pushed in just enough so that the whole instrument rises a whole step in pitch. Just as with the F Alto, unless you have perfect pitch you will not really even realize this kalimba is different from the G-tuned Alto. Every song you play on the standard G Alto can be played on this kalimba, it will just sound a step higher.

In addition to F, G, and A, the Alto kalimba can also be tuned to E, F# (Gb), and G# (Ab). Why don’t more people get their Altos tuned down to E, a great key in which to play along with guitar? The body size of the Alto is designed to resonate down to the low G note, but it starts to lose resonance at F#, more in F, and more still in E. You can compensate for this by playing in a gourd or on a table – a larger resonant structure that will help amplify the lower notes. Playing through a pickup also helps with the reproduction of notes from the low range of the kalimba.


If you are undecided about the tuning, your best bet is to go with the standard G major tuning and setup. Most of the tips, tablature, and books were written for the standard tuning, so a good path to follow is to keep your kalimba in the key of G for a year or two or three as you learn, and then branch out into other tunings as you progress. Of course, the
Kalimba Doctor at Kalimba Magic can retune your current treble kalimba any way you like!

The letters are the names of the notes each tine is tuned to. The numbers are the degree of the scale – that is, 1, the root note, is “Do” as in “Do, Re Mi, Fa, So”. The number 5? Count up, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, which would be “Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So”. The major scale is the standard reference for all other scales, and scales that have different intervals will indicate their departure from the major scale intervals with a + or sign, as in 3- for a minor or flattened or lowered third degree of the scale.

The Bb Treble kalimba reads Alto Tablature – compare the numbers, that is the degrees of the scale, and the painted tines, to the Alto’s standard tuning – they are identical, except for the high 2 and 3 which are missing from the Alto Kalimba’s standard tuning. The notes are all raised a minor 3rd from the Alto standard tuning. All the tines can be pulled out or pushed in a bit and this basic tuning can be extended to the keys of A, Bb, B, or C.
The D Treble kalimba reads Alto Tablature – compare the numbers, that is the degrees of the scale, and the painted tines, to the Alto’s standard tuning – they are identical, except for the two lowest tines B and C# (unnumbered here) which are missing from the Alto Kalimba’s standard tuning. The notes are all raised a 5th above the Alto standard tuning. This basic tuning can be extended to the keys of C, Db, D, Eb, E, and F.
This is similar to the tuning that Maurice White of Earth, Wind, and Fire used on essentially all of the kalimba songs they did. I “reverse engineered” it from a YouTube video of Maurice White playing.
This was my very first alternative tuning, which I made in 2001, and it uses the B as the root for a Middle-Eastern feeling scale. This is a tuning that you can easily do yourself, as all you need to do is push the lower two D tines up to D#. I liked leaving the upper D natural, which can lead to dissonance if you play the octaves – so watch out for that one. This also plays in E harmonic minor. It is actually very fun to switch back and forth between playing in B Middle Eastern and E harmonic minor.

Click on the tuning name to see the tuning and read about it. There are two different tuning setups available for both the Box Alto Chromatic and the Celeste Alto Chromatic Kalimbas: G or C tuning on the front). The Treble Chromatic Kalimba has two different setups: both in C, with or without redundant notes on the back.

Standard G Alto Chromatic Tuning

On these chromatic tuning charts, the front tines are the long ones in the top diagram; six are painted (shaded gray). The back-side chromatic tines are represented twice – first, higher up on the upper diagram
the back side tines are displayed as if you could see right through your kalimba . In this view, wherever there is a back-side tine, there is also a dot on the corresponding front tine. The back-side tine is always the flat of the corresponding front-side tine. When you flip the kalimba over and look at the back-side, you will see the mirror image of the previous representation. These are the unpainted tines shown in the lower diagram.

Kalimba Magic recommends that your Chromatic Kalimba be tuned to G on the front, making it just like the Alto kalimba. This means that if you know how to play songs on the Alto Kalimba, you can play all of those songs on the Chromatic’s front, and you can add the chromatic notes on the back at your own pace. It also means that all of the books and educational resources for the Alto kalimba will work for the front side of your Chromatic Kalimba. Plus, since the forthcoming Chromatic Kalimba book will be written for the G Chromatic Kalimba, you will be able to use it.

Read more

C Alto Chromatic Tuning

It is possible to retune from G to C (or from C to G). The Chromatic Kalimba in either G or C setup will have all of the chromatic notes over the same two octave range, but some people prefer the C tuning which makes all the front notes be “natural” notes, and all the back-side notes be “flat notes”. (If the Chromatic Kalimba is retuned to C, the front notes are the same as the C-Alto, for which there is an instructional download.)

Retuning from G to C on the front is trivial, only requiring tuning F# to F natural. On the back, most of the tines need to be both rearranged and retuned – the tines need to be taken off the kalimba and reinserted through different slots, as the gaps on the back are positioned in different places in the two tunings. This is difficult but not impossible. If you know from the start that you want your Chromatic Kalimba to be tuned to C on the front, you should order the instrument in the C tuning.
If you already have the Chromatic Kalimba, the
Doctor can take care of retuning for you ($20 covers tuning and domestic US return shipping).

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C Treble Chromatic with Redundant Notes

The Chromatic Treble Kalimba has a bass note of C, and the front side is laid out like the Bb Treble, tuned up to C. In its standard tuning, every tine on the front has a flat immediately behind it. That is, there are 17 tines on the front and 17 tines on the back. However, as C flat = B and F flat = E, which are already on the front side, this kalimba has redundant B notes and redundant E notes, one on the front and one on the back. This permits you to trill those notes – playing quickly on the front side and then the back side, etc.

Another way to think of the back side is that it is a full kalimba tuned to B natural… but if you look at it from the back side the notes are reversed left to right. If you could look right through the kalimba, the notes would be oriented the usual way.

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C Treble Chromatic, non-Redundant

The C Chromatic Treble Kalimba can also be arranged in a non-redundant setup. The gaps between the tines on the back-side really help me find my way on the Chromatic Kalimba, just as the black notes and the gaps between them similarly help a pianist on the keyboard. For this reason, I prefer removing the redundant tines from the back-side of the Chromatic Treble Kalimba, but either setup is available.

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We offer the African-tuned Karimba in its standard African tuning plus four westernized tunings:

The standard tuning for the traditional, African-tuned karimba is intricate. Use the accompanying chart to tune your instrument. If you have a differently-tuned karimba, you can retune it to the African tuning with this information. And even if you don’t have a karimba, you can learn how a traditional microtonal tuning is set up – it has a logic that is discernable. This is one of the tunings studied by Hugh Tracey as he learned about the detailed tunings of traditional African instruments.

The numbers on the chart are there to help us see, in fine focus, just how sharp or flat the standard tuned notes are. Each number represents how many “cents” sharp (if a positive number) or flat (if negative) that particular tine is, relative to the note name on each tine. A half step is 100 cents. The A’s and E’s are right in tune, while the C# is 40 cents flat, almost halfway between a C and a C#. Why? This is the traditional African tuning that evolved and was perfected in Africa.

  • You can achieve this tuning with an electronic tuner, which shows cents flat or sharp.
  • Notice all the octaves are perfect – every F# is 20 cents flat, and every G# is 40 cents flat, so from low G# to high G# is a perfect octave.
  • Almost all of the 5th intervals are also perfect – That is, from A to E is a 5th, and both A and E have a “0” under them. From B to F# is a 5th, and they are both tuned down by 20 cents, so the interval between those tines is also a perfect 5th.
  • This tuning will not work particularly well with western instruments such as the guitar or piano, unless those instruments mainly focus on the notes A and E.
  • If A is the root note, C# is the 3rd, F# is the 6th, and G# is the 7th. A simple way of understanding this scale is that the 3rd, 6th, and 7th all lie in between the major intervals and the minor intervals. These are what is called “blue notes”.
  • We can “westernize” this tuning by shifting up to the major intervals (ie, C#, F#, G#), or by tuning down to the minor intervals (ie, C, F, G). In either case, we can play the traditional African songs, but we can also play along with western instruments tuned normally.

The karimba and student karimba books, plus the “10 Traditional Pieces” and “11 Advanced Traditional Pieces” downloads all work with this tuning. They will also work with the A Major or G Major tunings.

This is the westernized A major tuning for the African Karimba. In this case, the numbers in the diagram refer to the degree of the scale – 1 is the root, 3 is the third, 5 is the fifth, and these notes should all line up perfectly with a properly tuned piano or guitar. Thus you can play this karimba with many western instruments, including guitar and piano. Out of all the westernized karimba tunings, this one is the most useful. Andrew Tracey says that if you put this tuning into the hands of an experienced African player of traditional karimba, they would accept it as more-or-less correct, while they would not accept a minor-tuned version as correct. What this essentially means is that you can play all the traditional songs in this tuning and still get the basic feel of them.

The karimba and student karimba books, plus the “10 Traditional Pieces” and “11 Advanced Traditional Pieces” downloads all work with this tuning.

This is the G major westernized tuning of the karimba. This tuning is exactly one whole step down from the A Major tuning. The numbers are all the same, so all the intervals will be the same. Why would you want this instrument in G instead of in A? Because the standard key for Hugh Tracey Alto and Treble kalimbas is G, and if your karimba is also in G then you can play it with the other Hugh Tracey instruments.

The karimba and student karimba books, plus the “10 Traditional Pieces” and “11 Advanced Traditional Pieces” downloads all work with this tuning.

In the accompanying tuning diagram, the minus sign after the 3, 6, and 7 indicate that these intervals are now minor, making it the original African-tuned instrument with its notes rectified down to make an A minor western scale. Why would you want such a tuning? In this tuning, this karimba can produce wonderfully mystical, New Age-sounding music. In addition, it is playable with a Sansula, because A minor is also the standard key for the Sansula. I keep a karimba in this tuning because the A minor tuning has the same notes as the C major scale, and I use it when I perform with my marimba band.

The “Yekermo Sew” and “Three Original Pieces” downloads will work with this tuning.

This tuning has the same minor intervals as the A minor tuning, but has been tuned down a whole step.
Why would you want such a tuning? Some people tune their Alto or Pentatonic Kalimbas to G minor because this tuning can lend a more mystical, New Age experience. I use a G minor tuned karimba because it has the same notes as the Bb major scale, so it goes with my Bb Treble.

The “Yekermo Sew” and “Three Original Pieces” downloads will work with this tuning.

The 15-Note F Karimba

While the 17-Note A-based Karimba is built on a Treble (either celeste or box) platform, it is also possible to build a 15-Note Karimba in F on an Alto platform. F is important and very desirable because of the 55 (minimum) years of history behind the 15-Note F Karimba. In 1960, Andrew Tracey discovered the musician Jega Tapera in the township of Bulawayo, Rhodesia (now the country of Zimbabwe), and he was playing a 13-Note Karimba in F. Jega Tapera was recruited to teach traditional music at the Kwanongoma College of African Music, where students learned on an expanded 15-Note Karimba in F. One of those students was Dumisani Maraire, who brought the 15-Note F Karimba to the USA in 1968, where he popularized it under the name mbira nyunga nyunga (the sparkly, sparkly mbira). Dumisani’s daughter, Chiwoniso, also played the 15-Note F-tuned Karimba.Read more

The 15-Note Karimba in F minor

This is the same instrument as the 15-Note F Karimba, but cast into a minor-tuned version.Read more

SaReGaMa’s Solo for Lotus is played in G minor, but the tuning supports either G minor or C minor. C minor is in some ways more psychologically compelling because the bass note on the Lotus is C. When G is made to be the root note, this is a straight natural minor scale, except that the 2nd is missing.
This chart has the exact same note names as the G minor Lotus tuning, but the numbers – that is, the roles that each note is playing – has shifted to make C be the “1” or root. From this point of reference, the 6th is missing, giving this tuning a sort of pentatonic feel. To be completely pentatonic, the D or 2nd would also have to be missing.
This is a C harmonic minor scale, but it also works as a G Middle Eastern scale. The C natural minor would have a minor 7th, minor 3rd, and minor 6th, but the 7th is a major 7th in the harmonic minor scale.
SaReGaMa Air tuning is a form of D minor with a 4 and a 5 in the bass below D (the 1), but skipping the 7th of the scale in the lower range. Why? Avoiding the 7th permits one to hear either an implied major 7th or a minor 7th, so the lower range does not conflict with the harmonic minor (requiring a major 7th). In the upper range, the minor 7th (which is C) is used, making this a natural minor.

Originally, every Sansula was tuned to what I now call Standard Tuning, which is mystical, enchanting, beautiful, but ultimately somewhat limiting and even boring. Yes, I admit it – I was bored with this tuning, so I started looking for other ways to tune the Sansula, and those new tunings keep my interest for months to years at a time. When you purchase a Sansula from Kalimba Magic, we will put it into any of these tunings. You may very well be able to change the tuning yourself. And you can always send the instrument to us and we’ll perform the retuning.

Check it out:

A large part of the purpose of the alternative tunings to other kalimbas is to step out into the world of different possibilities – different sonic universes that can amaze and delight. However, the student karimba is all about being true to this possibly ancient tuning. The different tunings we present for the Student Karimba are all the same basic tuning, but shifted into different keys – there are general reasons to put the student karimba in any of C, F, A, and G, but each of these Student Karimba tunings will be able to play the exact same songs because the relative tuning between the different tines will be the same in all of these tunings.

The big Student Karimba Book has recordings in G, while the Student Karimba for Kids has recordings in both G and C. The far right note, 8 = G, is an optional note and is the exact same note as the G tine third from the left.
The big Student Karimba Book has recordings in G, while the Student Karimba for Kids has recordings in both G and C. The far right note, 8 = C, is an optional note and is the exact same note as the C tine third from the left.

Hugh Tracey demonstrated that traditional African tunings did not use the same system of notes that western music was based on – that is, African music doesn’t exactly fit onto the notes of the piano.
This tuning diagram represents the notes in terms of the degree of the scale (1, 3, 5) and the cents flat that each note should be tuned to. The 0 underneath the 1, 5, and 8 mean these notes should tuned exactly in tune to western notes, while the -20 and -40 indicate that these notes should be tuned 20 or 40 cents flat. There are 100 cents in a half step (that is, the distance between two adjacent notes on a piano).

We usually tune the Student Karimba to be right on the western notes, but you can request an African tuning (in A, G, C, or F), or you can do it yourself.

Why would you want a Student Karimba tuned to A? So that you can play it with the 17-Note full African Karimba, which usually comes in the key of A.
Why would you want a Student Karimba tuned to F? So that you can play it with the 15-Note Karimba in F.

The pentatonic scale is a five tone scale (five notes per octave). There are actually many different pentatonic scales, each with different character, and several of them can be found here.

G Major Pentatonic

The letters on the tines are the names of the note each tine is tuned to. As G is the root, its role in the music is as the “1”; D is the “5” of the scale. Note that the 4th and 7th are missing. With a little practice, you should be able to see the “1 2 3” and sing “Do Re Mi”… but this tuning skips “Fa” and jumps straight to “So”. By paying attention to the numbers, you can understand how the scale goes and how to use it musically.

The standard tuning of the Hugh Tracey Pentatonic Kalimba is G major.
The Pentatonic Songbook, half of the book
Playing the Pentatonic Kalimba,
and the full numbers-based book 6-Note Pentatonic Kalimba Songbook all will work for this tuning.

Listen to This Kalimba Tuning

G Minor Pentatonic

One of the easier and more obvious alternative tunings for your Pentatonic Kalimba, the minor pentatonic scale has recently become popular because of the Native American Flute. It’s a great scale to jam on and you can have plenty of fun without any instructional material, but if you want some guidance, the second half of the book
Playing the Pentatonic Kalimba works for this tuning. This kalimba will work with the Bb Treble Kalimba or any G minor tunings.

Listen to This Kalimba Tuning

G Ake Bono Pentatonic Tuning

The Ake Bono scale is a Japanese minor pentatonic scale. The song “Sakura” is written in this tuning. The interesting thing that makes this tuning different from the other pentatonic scales that we have discussed is that this scale has two half step intervals (from 2 to 3- and from 5 to 6-) and two intervals that are each two whole steps (3- to 5 and 6- to 1). It is very closely related to the standard G major pentatonic scale – you just tune the B and E down to Bb and Eb. This is a very mystical and beautiful scale.Listen to This Kalimba Tuning

F7 Bebey Tuning

This tuning is found on Cameroonian music legend Francis Bebey’s song “Breaths”. I don’t know anything more about it other than that.
Francis Bebey tended to use a different kalimba tuning for each of his songs. He would lay down a flourish of kalimba notes in an introductory solo, followed by a groove established by the kalimba. The rest of the band – drums, bass, guitar – would then come in on top of the kalimba groove. The kalimba groove would stay constant for the rest of the song.

The musical example of this kalimba uses more of a “solo kalimba” approach throughout the piece.

Listen to This Kalimba Tuning
The A minor pentatonic scale has the same degrees of the scale (that is, the numbers) as the G minor pentatonic scale, but it is shifted up a whole note in pitch. As such, it will still work with the second half of the book
Playing the Pentatonic Kalimba. This kalimba will work with other kalimbas in G major tuning, other kalimbas in A minor tuning (such as Maurice White’s Evil Tuning on a Treble or Alto), and the standard A minor Sansula tuning.
This F Major Pentatonic tuning is just like the standard G Major, but every note has been shifted down by a whole step. All of the relationships between the tines remain the same when retuned in this way. We can actually retune to F, F#, G#, A, or Bb in this manner.
This is very close to the standard G Major Pentatonic tuning – the two B tines have been pushed in a half step to make C, which becomes the root note. Having the 5th in the bass is always a good alternative to having the root note in the bass. This tuning will work with the
numbers-based book 6-Note Pentatonic Kalimba Songbook. Of course, this tuning will work well with any of the Catania kalimbas in their standard C tunings, or with any instrument in A minor (such as the Sansula in standard tuning).

The 8-Note Kalimba can be tuned to different scales from around the world.

Most 8-Note Kalimbas have a standard tuning of the C major scale (the Goshen Box 8-Note Kalimba has the same basic note layout but is tuned to D major instead). The books assume you have this tuning. While this tuning is totally logical, there are actually a lot of other tunings that you can do wonderful things with.

D Major

The Goshen 8-Note Box Kalimba has the same basic tuning, except every note is a whole step higher, putting it in D major. You can still use the same 8-Note books, but if you listen to the CD, you cannot play along as it is in a different key.Read more

F Major

If you compare this tuning chart to the C major tuning, you will notice that the letters are all the same, except that B has turned into Bb (B flat) – that is, you pull it out slightly to make it a bit longer and lower. This action will change it from being the7th of the scale and make it be the 4th… counting down, F is now the root, and the low note (and the top note) on this kalimba, C, is now the 5th.

Why would you want to do this? It turns out that there are a whole bunch of songs you can play on an 8-note kalimba set up like this, and they are not possible in the standard setup. And the best news? This is the smallest possible retuning you can do, and you get a huge result from it! We have a 32 Song download for the 8-Note in this tuning; click the link to purchase the download.

Read more
After you pull out your B tine to make it a Bb, you might also consider pulling out the A tine and E tine to Ab and Eb. Why would you do this? These changes will give you a minor 3rd, a minor 6th, and a minor 7th – all the changes you need to accomplish to form the C natural minor tuning. This tuning will be more melancholy, more moody, more mystical. In other words, it will play totally different music, and it is still a very simple retuning, and it is easy to go back to the standard C major. Try it, I think you’ll like it.
By now you are getting the idea: small changes in the notes you have on your kalimba can make profound changes in the music that comes out of it. The important change in this Middle Eastern tuning is the G going to a G#. Tuning the low C down to a B, and the high C up to an E, are less important changes that serve to reinforce the E as the new root. This tuning will play very cool Middle Eastern sounding music.

Student Karimba

This is perhaps the most important alternative tuning – it reproduces the African Tuned Karimba, also called the Student Karimba. It is thought to be the original tuning of the African Mbira over 1000 years ago, and is thought to be the tuning that Father Do Santos saw when he first wrote about the kalimba in 1586 in present-day Mozambique. Also, you can find a lot of instructional material on this tuning in the Student Karimba section by clicking below.Read more

Sansula Tuning

The Sansula is one of the coolest kalimbas in the world, and costs a lot of money too – but the good news is that you can put the Sansula tuning on your inexpensive 8-Note Kalimba. This tuning is an A minor derived from the Ake Bono scale. Learn more about the Sansula by clicking below.Read more
The Sansula tuning is based on the Japanese Ake Bono scale, but it skips a note. Here we have reproduced the C minor Ake Bono scale, without skipping any notes. This is a great scale, and playing it can transport you to another continent.
The Hitzazkiar tuning is a Persian scale similar to the Middle Eastern tuning. Look at the right side – C E G B – these are the same notes as the standard tuning, but the notes on the left side are all one half-step above the notes on the right side.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in Standard C Major Tuning.

Almost all of the instructional material is for the Standard C Major Tuning, so if you are in doubt, stick with this tuning.
The kalimba is in C even though G, the 5th of the scale, is the low note.

Listen to the standard-tuned 12-Note played with G as the root note – in mixolydian mode.

This is the same Standard C Major Tuning, but this image shows you how your kalimba would look if you request painted tines. The painted E, D, and C match the three painted tines on the 8-Note kalimba, and the 66 Songs Download and the 12-Note Exercises Book work with tines painted this way.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G Major Tuning.

The G Major tuning is an obvious one to make – just push the F tine in a bit to reach F#, the leading tone, which makes the next note, G, be the root note… which just happens to be the bass (lowest) note already. This is a left handed G tuning though – it can be made right handed, but that requires significant retuning.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G minor Tuning.

G minor is a nice tuning – beautiful! Also works as Bb Major.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G Middle Eastern Tuning.

The Middle Eastern tunings always feel exotic. This also works as C harmonic minor, and has the same notes as the SaReGaMa Freygish-tuned Karimba.

The Hitzaskiar scale is very similar to the Middle Eastern scale, except this one has an F#.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G Major Pentatonic Tuning.

This pentatonic tuning also works as E minor, and it goes with the Hugh Tracey Kalimbas in their standard G tunings.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G minor pentatonic Tuning.

The G minor pentatonic is the “Native American Flute” mode – beautiful and mystical. Works with other G minor kalimba tunings as well as Bb major tunings.

Listen to the 12-Note Kalimba in G minor Ake Bono Tuning.

The Ake Bono scale is a traditional Japanese pentatonic scale, and this tuning can transport you to an ancient temple in a land far away. A favorite tuning.

How to Tune A Coconut Thumb Piano Kalimba

Whether you are a beginner or more experienced kalimba player, you will still need to keep your instrument in tune if you want to play it. Without proper tuning, it will be nearly impossible to enjoy the beauty this instrument is.

Fortunately, tuning kalimba is not a complex task, and you’ll be able to master it in no time. You will, however, need tools to perform this task. To tune kalimba, you will need to reposition each of the tines to ensure they are giving a proper note.

But you can also change the tuning completely, and create something new and unique that fits your playing style and your desire. 

Kalimba Tuning App

The first thing you might need is a tuning app. There are so many apps available online, and they are compatible with any smartphone. While you won’t be able to find a kalimba specific tuner, you can find any chromatic one that you like. It is essential to find a chromatic tuner to be allowed to tune accurately since others might not work on kalimbas.

You can also get other types of tuning devices, even physical ones. Just keep in mind that you need to tune kalimba, so don’t get ones that can be used on guitars only. Furthermore, some kalimbas have a pickup and output. This means that you can get an electronic (or digital) tuner as well. 

The tuner is a must if you want your instrument to be playable, since tuning by ear can be rather difficult, especially for beginner players. Moreover, you will need a tuner regardless of the type of kalimba, and a number of keys your instrument has. 

Kalimba Tuning Tools

The second tuning tool you might need is a tuning hammer. Some kalimba packages offer an instrument along with a hammer. However, if you bought things separately, you will need to get a hammer as well. 

The core purpose of the hammer is to allow you to move tines in a specific direction. This way, you will effectively change the length of the tine, and allow it to ring in a different key. Some manufacturers use a steel pipe instead of the hammer, which means that you will need a real hammer besides this tuning tool. 

Another tool you might need depending on the type of instrument is Allen wrench or hex key. Some models of kalimba have hexagonal sockets that are used to fixate the tines. Their goal is to ensure the kalimba stays in tune for a longer period of time. 

How To Tune A 17/11/12/10/9/7/6/5 Note Kalimba

The basic principle is the same for each model of kalimba regardless of the number of tines it has. You will use the same method if you have a five-note kalimba, and if you have the one with seventeen keys. It is essential to count the tines and understand the key your instrument is in. After you determine these two things, you can proceed to tune. 

Let’s take a look at a 17-note kalimba, for example, tuned in the key of C. The reason why we will start with this one is that it’s the most common type and the most common key you can find in the market. All of the tines on this instrument should be in the key of C, and the lowest note is the root. So, if you pluck the longest tine, it should show on your tuner as a C note. 

If the note shows as a C, you will proceed to the next tine, which is D (in our example). So, let’s assume that the second tine is not showing is a D, or if it’s not exactly on the spot. What you need to do is to take the hammer, and gently tap the tine either on the bottom or on the top. If you tap the tine from the top of the instrument (opposite of the part you’re plucking when you play), you will slightly move the tine to the bottom, and lower the tone. On the other hand, tapping the tine from the bottom will make the key higher. 

Based on what the tuner showed you will use one of the two options. For tapping the top part of the tine, you will use the flatter side of the hammer, and for the bottom part, you will use sharper. 

Notes On The Seventeen-Key Kalimba 

If you have a standard kalimba, it is most likely in the key of C. This means that the longest tine is the C. From there on, you will move alternatively to find other notes. The first one on the left is D, the first one on the right is E, and so on. You will take one note on the left side, and one note on the right side to follow the C major scale. 

The instrument with seventeen keys has two and a half octaves, which means that it starts with C4, and ends with E6. The proper tuner will show you exactly which C you’re playing, so you will have an easier time tuning the instrument. 

Other Types Of Kalimba

Even if you have an instrument with a different number of keys and in a different key, the principle is the same. You will tap the tine from the top if you want your note to be lower, and from the bottom, for it to become higher. 

The smaller kalimbas often have a chord, instead of the scale, and you will follow the exact principle as with the C major scale. This is why it’s essential to know the key your instrument is in, and the type of tuning you want to have. 

Can You Tune A Kalimba To A Different Key?

Yes! You can pick any tuning you like. Following the example I previously mentioned, you can change the pitch of each tine to create any tuning you imagine. This way, even if you get bored from the C major scale, you can change the length of tines to create some different key, scale, or anything else. 

It is such a great way to explore the instrument and learn more about the possibilities that come with it. It would be a good idea to remember the original tuning, just in case you want to revert to old settings. 

Furthermore, some kalimbas have a different bass and root note. The bass note is the lowest note on the instrument which is also the longest tine. The root note shows the key the instrument is in. Sometimes these two notes are the same, as with C major kalimba, and sometimes they are not. 

Experimenting with different keys is always an exciting idea, but you should make sure you understand the basics of music theory before doing all the work by yourself. If you want to learn more about different tunings, you can always search them online to learn more about exciting tunings you can try on a 17-note kalimba.

How To Fix Buzzing Tines

It is not rare to happen that some tines are buzzing after you’ve finished tuning the instrument. Fear not, it is a common issue, and you’ll be able to fix it in no time. For kalimbas that have hexagonal sockets, you will need a hex key to loosen or tighten the tine. Naturally, you will only touch the one that’s causing the buzz, and ignore others. 

What you want to do is to either loosen it or tighten the tine, and the buzzing will stop. Your goal is also to make the same distance between each tine. If they are too close, or too tight (or too loose), the buzzing will happen. 

Naturally, if your kalimba doesn’t have hexagonal sockets, you will simply shift the problematic tine to a position where it won’t cause noise. 

How Often Should You Tune Kalimba

You should tune your instrument as often as needed. If you notice that some of the keys are out of tune, that means that you need to tune it back. Usually, kalimba will hold the tuning for a couple of months. This means that you won’t need to worry about it quite often.

Of course, if you drop an instrument, or gets caught up with your clothes, you will probably need to tune it more often. But still, the chances of tuning it more then once a month are slim. 

Furthermore, the amount of playing will also have an effect on the tuning stability. The more you play the kalimba, the more often you will need to tune it. So be sure that you understand how everything works since you will need to tune it at least once in a while. 

Other Methods To Change The Key And Tune Kalimba

It is still possible to use your fingers to pull or adjust the tine that is out of tune. However, this method is not exactly precise, and you might need some practice before you perfect it. Using a tuning hammer is quite easier, so there is no reason to use other tools. 

Of course, you can always change the tuning or the key of the kalimba by filing down the tines. While it is still a possibility, it might not be the best idea since the process is messy and non-reversible. If you take too much off, you can ruin the instrument, and you will have to get either a replacement for the tine or for the entire kalimba. 


Making sure your kalimba is in tune is essential, and you won’t be able to create music without it. Fortunately, to tune this thumb piano, you will need just a tiny bit of practice. Furthermore, you will need a chromatic tuner and a tuning hammer. 

To make the key higher, you will tap the tine from the bottom side (or the one you pluck), and to make it higher, you will tap with the hammer on the top. There is no reason to hit the instrument hard, and small light taps will be enough. Keep progress and changes on the chromatic tuner, and your kalimba will be ready in no time.

If you found this article useful you may want to save this pin below to your Kalimba board


Tuning standard kalimba

Yana and Lena started to massage my breasts using mud for sliding. My breasts went from side to side and from this my body all crawled through the mud. Girls passing by always stood on my hair and trampled it into the mud, making rotational movements with their feet, as if they were dancing a twist.


Stop. Aaah. No. Aaaa. Yeah.

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Having collected dirt in buckets and filled a small hole with it, twenty-five centimeters deep, Yulia and Olesya, taking my body by the. Legs, dragged it back and forth several times, having previously plugged my ears and nose with a cotton swab. My torso was almost completely immersed in this viscous slurry, and the freed vagina and anus scooped up this dirt and, as a result, were completely.

Clogged with it. Laying me down next to the well, Anya washed my face and removed the cotton wool from my nose.

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