In 1869 - 1880 Friedrich Kohlrausch conducteda series of very precise measurements of the conductivities of many compoundsat various concentrations and temperatures. He discovered the constantdifferences in the conductivities of solutions with a common ion as isillustrated in the Basic Experiment with this simulation (these differencesbecome very precise when the equivalent conductivities are extrapolatedto infinite dilution). This became known as Kohlraush'sLaw of the Independent Migration of Ions.
It can be illustrated as:
LKCl= LNaCl + LKBr- LNaBr
In the Basic Experiment, there were some materialswhich did not obey these rules, especially those materials which did notcompletely dissolve. Kohlraush's Law provides a way to estimate whatthe conductivity of an insoluble material should be if all of the materialwould dissolve. For instance, in the case of Silver Chloride:
The conductivity of a 0.00100 mol/L solutionof Silver Chloride shouldbe equal to the sum of the conductivities of 0.00100 mole/L solutionsof silver nitrateand sodium chlorideminus the conductivity of a 0.00100 mole/L solution of sodiumnitrate. The actual conductivity ismuch less than this calculated value, indicating that the concentrationof silver and chloride ions is much less than 0.00100 moles/Liter. The actual concentration of the ions can be estimated as:
actual concentration / actual conductivity= 0.00100 / calculated conductivity
A more precise statement of this relationshipis:
This principle may be applied to estimate theconcentration of ions in a saturated solution of any ionic material, butit works best for materials which are extremely insoluble where the equivalentconductivity values whould be extrapolated to infinite dilution.
The principle can also be applied to solutionsof weak electrolytes, which do not completely ionize. A generic weakacid which we'll call HAcomes to equilibrium with its ions:
HA(aq) <=> H+(aq) + A-(aq) Keq = [H+][A-] / [HA]
The conductivity of the solution depends onthe concentration of the ions, since the undissociated molecules (HA) donot conduct electricity.
The conductivity that a 0.00100 M solutionof this weak acid should have may be calculated from the conductivitiesof a strong acid (such as HCl), the sodium salt of this acid, and sodiumchloride. The concentration of the ions is estimated as:
concentration of ions / actual conductivity= 0.00100 / calculated conductivity
The concentration of ions (this is equal tothe concentration of hydrogen ions AND to the concentration of the anion)and the concentration of undissociated acid (0.00100 - the concentrationof ions) can be used to estimate the equilibrium constant.
1. Measure the conductivities of 0.00100 Msolutions of AgNO3,NaCl,NaNO3,and that of a saturated solution of AgCl. Estimate the solubility of AgCl.
2. Use these same principles to estimate thesolubility of other silver salts,and that of Barium Sulfate.
3. Measure the conductivities of solutionsof Calcium Hydroxide, at increasing concentrations until the solubilitylimit is exceeded. Estimate the solubility.
Weak Acids and Bases:
1. Measure the conductivities of acetic acidsolutions at concentrations up to 1.0 M. Calculate the ionizationconstant at each concentration.
2. Measure the conductivities of ammonia solutionsat concentrations up to 1.0 M. Calculate the ionization constantat each concentration.
Electrical Conductivity Studies of AgCl:KCl (RbCl, CsCl) Composites and a Novel Method of Obtaining Highly Porous Materials
C.C. Liang, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 1289 (1973).
P. Chowdhary, V.B. Tare, and J.B. Wagner, J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 123 (1985).
P. Chowdhary and J.B. Wagner, Mater. Lett., 3, 78 (1985).
T. Jow and J.B. Wagner, J. Electrochem. Soc., 126, 1963 (1979).
K. Shahi and J.B. Wagner, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 43, 713 (1982).
K. Shahi and J.B. Wagner, J. Solid State Chem., 42, 107 (1982).
K. Shahi and J.B. Wagner, J. Electrochem. Soc., 128, 6 (1981).
J.B. Wagner, Mater. Res. Bull., 15, 1691 (1980).
K. Shahi and J.B. Wagner, Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 757 (1980).
J. Maier, Solid State Ionics, 18 & 19, 1141 (1986).
J. Maier, J. Electrochem. Soc., 134, 1524 (1987).
J. Maier, Prog. Solid St. Chem., 23, 171 (1995).
J.-S. Lee and J. Maier, Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Ionic and Mixed Conducting Ceramics (T.A. Ramanarayanar, W.I. Worrell, H.L. Tuller, M. Mogensen and A.C. Khandkar (eds.)), The Electrochemical Society, vol. PU 97–24, Pennington (1997), pp. 757–763.
J.I. Peña, R.I. Merino, G.F. de la Fuente, and V.M. Orera, Adv. Mater., 8, 909 (1996).
S. Schimschal-Thölke, H. Schmalzried, and M. Martin, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 99, 1 (1995).
H.-P. Bossmann, J. Richter, and N. Struck, Z. Naturforsch., 46a, 206 (1991).
J.W. Martin and R.D. Doherty, in Stability of Microstructure in Metallic Systems (Cambridge University Press 1976), p. 212.
J. Fleig, F. Noll, and J. Maier, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 100, 607 (1996).
U. Lauer, J. Maier, and W. Göpel, Sensors and Actuators B, 2, 125 (1990).
J. Maier and U. Lauer, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 94, 973 (1990).
E. Hartmann, V.V. Peller, and G.I. Rogalski, Solid State Ionics, 28-30, 1098 (1988).
M. Holzinger, J. Fleig, J. Maier, and W. Sitte, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 99, 1427 (1995).
A.J. Polak, S. Petty-Weeks, and A.J. Beuhler, Sensors and Actuators, 9, 1 (1986).
Max-Planck-Institut fu¨r Festko¨rperforschung, Heisenbergstraße 1, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany
Amita Chandra, Annett Spangenberg & Joachim Maier
About this article
Cite this article
Chandra, A., Spangenberg, A. & Maier, J. Electrical Conductivity Studies of AgCl:KCl (RbCl, CsCl) Composites and a Novel Method of Obtaining Highly Porous Materials. Journal of Electroceramics3, 47–52 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009914916022
Share this article
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- ionic conductivity
- silver halide
- heterogeneous doping
Chemical compound with the formula AgCl
|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||143.32 g·mol−1|
|Density||5.56 g cm−3|
|Melting point||455 °C (851 °F; 728 K)|
|Boiling point||1,547 °C (2,817 °F; 1,820 K)|
Solubility in water
|520 μg/100 g at 50 °C|
Solubility product (Ksp)
|Solubility||soluble in NH3, conc. HCl, conc. H2SO4, alkali cyanide, (NH4)2CO3, KBr, Na2S2O3;|
insoluble in alcohol, dilute acids.
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
Refractive index (nD)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Fischer Scientific, Salt Lake Metals|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|N verify (what is YN ?)|
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formulaAgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl+ and Pb2+). Upon illumination or heating, silver chloride converts to silver (and chlorine), which is signaled by grey to black or purplish coloration to some samples. AgCl occurs naturally as a mineral chlorargyrite.
Silver chloride is unusual in that, unlike most chloride salts, it has very low solubility. It is easily synthesized by metathesis: combining an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (which is soluble) with a soluble chloride salt, such as sodium chloride or cobalt(II) chloride. The silver chloride that forms will precipitate immediately.
Structure and reactions
The solid adopts the fccNaCl structure, in which each Ag+ ion is surrounded by an octahedron of six chloride ligands. AgF and AgBr crystallize similarly. However, the crystallography depends on the condition of crystallization, primarily free silver ion concentration, as is shown on the pictures left (greyish tint and metallic lustre are due to partly reducedsilver). AgCl dissolves in solutions containing ligands such as chloride, cyanide, triphenylphosphine, thiosulfate, thiocyanate and ammonia. Silver chloride reacts with these ligands according to the following illustrative equations:
Silver chloride does not react with nitric acid. Most complexes derived from AgCl are two-, three-, and, in rare cases, four-coordinate, adopting linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral coordination geometries, respectively.
Above 2 reactions are particularly important in qualitative analysis of AgCl in labs as AgCl is white in colour , which changes to (silver arsenite) which is yellow in colour or (Silver arsenate) which is reddish brown in colour.
In one of the most famous reactions in chemistry, addition of colorless aqueous silver nitrate to an equally colorless solution of sodium chloride produces an opaque white precipitate of AgCl:
This conversion is a common test for the presence of chloride in solution. Due to its conspicuousness it is easily used in titration, which gives the typical case of argentometry.
The solubility product, Ksp, for AgCl in water is 1.77×10−10 at room temperature, which indicates that only 1.9 mg (that is, ) of AgCl will dissolve per liter of water. The chloride content of an aqueous solution can be determined quantitatively by weighing the precipitated AgCl, which conveniently is non-hygroscopic, since AgCl is one of the few transition metal chlorides that is unreactive toward water. Interfering ions for this test are bromide and iodide, as well as a variety of ligands (see silver halide). For AgBr and AgI, the Ksp values are 5.2 x 10−13 and 8.3 x 10−17, respectively. Silver bromide (slightly yellowish white) and silver iodide (bright yellow) are also significantly more photosensitive than is AgCl.
AgCl quickly darkens on exposure to light by disintegrating into elemental chlorine and metallic silver. This reaction is used in photography and film.
- The silver chloride electrode is a common reference electrode in electrochemistry.
- Silver chloride's low solubility makes it a useful addition to pottery glazes for the production of "Inglaze lustre".
- Silver chloride has been used as an antidote for mercury poisoning, assisting in the elimination of mercury.
- Silver chloride is used:
- to make photographic paper since it reacts with photons to form latent image and via photoreduction
- in photochromic lenses, again taking advantage of its reversible conversion to Ag metal
- in bandages and wound healing products
- to create yellow, amber, and brown shades in stained glass manufacture
- as an infrared transmissive optical component as it can be hot-pressed into window and lens shapes
- as an antimicrobial agent:
- in some personal deodorant products
- for long-term preservation of drinking water in water tanks
Salts and covalent derivatives of the chloride ion
" Yes, I said without hesitation. "Lift me up, get dressed and let's go, I'll walk you to the door, otherwise it's too late you have to come back, otherwise they'll start looking for you. And we don't need this. " whom she did not warn. And the fact that the roll call took place as early as 3 numbers.
You have not changed your mind. Of course not. I looked at them and asked.The conductivity of a solution of AgCl at 298 K is found to be `1.382xx10^(-6)Omega^(-1)
Be careful some safe ways. What, I didn't know exactly. I was only guessing.
- Bonnie freddy
- Armenian puzzle
- Bible scripture stickers
- Usb aldl cable
- Medifast shake
- Blackish thanksgiving episodes
- F1 airbox
- Nelly furtado bangs
- Compass tattoo png
- Home pedicure stand
Such an onslaught was enough, and I groaned, shouted, and fell onto the bed. I just breathed deeply. Everything seemed so far away. The reflections of the sun and water spun like a kaleidoscope before my eyes, it became immediately legs, ass, I wanted to catch up with. Her and caress.